Commercial Signals

Commercial Signals

what are commercial signals

Experimental results show that DFC improves the positioning accuracy of base fingerprinting algorithms, including the Bayesian approach and a neural network model. With the fast growing demand of location-based services in indoor environments, indoor positioning based on fingerprinting has attracted a lot of interest due to its high accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel deep learning based indoor fingerprinting system using Channel State Information , which is termed DeepFi.

We demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed algorithm through extensive simulations as well as via real experimental data using a Universal Software Radio Peripheral platform with four antennas. Indoor localization based on SIngle Of Fingerprint is rather susceptible to the changing environment, multipath, and non-line-of-sight propagation. Recently, we first proposed a GrOup Of Fingerprints to improve the localization accuracy and reduce the burden of building fingerprints. In this paper, we propose a novel localization framework by Fusing A Group Of fingerprinTs based on random forests.

We operate a first-of-its-kind commercial satellite constellation to identify, process, and geolocate a broad set of RF signals. We extract value from this unique data through proprietary algorithms, fusing it with other sources to create powerful analytical products that solve hard challenges for our global customers. commodities Our products include maritime domain awareness and spectrum mapping and monitoring; our customers include a wide range of commercial, government and international entities. /PRNewswire/ — HawkEye 360 Inc. has successfully commissioned its three Pathfinder satellites and begun geolocating radio frequency signals.

Most existing fingerprints-based indoor localization approaches are based on some single fingerprints, such as received signal strength , channel impulse response , and signal subspace. However, the localization accuracy obtained by the single fingerprint approach is rather susceptible to the changing environment, multi-path, and non-line-of-sight propagation. In this paper, we propose a novel localization framework by Fusing A Group Of fingerprinTs via multiple antennas for the indoor environment. Then, we design a parallel GOOF multiple classifiers based on AdaBoost (GOOF-AdaBoost) to train each of these fingerprints in parallel as five strong multiple classifiers.

In the offline phase, we first build a GOOF from different transformations of the received signals of multiple antennas. Then, we design multiple GOOF strong classifiers based on Random Forests (GOOF-RF) by training each fingerprint in the GOOF.

However, in the existing literature, the hybrid visual and wireless approaches simply combine the above schemes in a straight forward manner, and fail to explore the interactions between them. In this paper, we propose a joint visual and wireless signal feature based approach for high-precision indoor localization system. In this joint scheme, WiFi signals are utilized to compute the coarse area with likelihood probability and visual images are used to fine-tune the localization result. Based on the numerical results, we show that the proposed scheme can achieve 0.62m localization accuracy with near real-time running time. In this paper, a novel fingerprint-based localization technique is proposed which is applicable for positioning User Equipments in cellular communication networks such as the Long-Term-Evolution system.

The proposed algorithm generates more accurate location estimates and reduces the risk of selecting a poorly-performing economic calendar fingerprinting approach. This study applies DFC to an actual GSM network with realistic measurements.

what are commercial signals

Sometimes, the tradition of a factory whistle becomes so deeply entrenched in a community that the whistle is maintained long after its original function as a time keeper became obsolete. For example, the University of Iowa’s power plant whistle has been reinstated several times by popular demand after numerous attempts to silence it. Accurate knowledge of time of day is essential for navigation, and ships carried the most accurate marine chronometers available, forex although they did not keep perfect time. A number of accurate audible or visible time signals were established in many seaport cities to enable navigators to set their chronometers. The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act has imposed a broad set of privacy-related requirements that are based on fair information practice principles – a set of fundamental principles for protecting privacy that have become the basis of global privacy laws.

Since the beginning of standardization, each cellular mobile radio generation has been designed for communication services, and satellite navigation systems, such as GPS, have provided precise localization as an add-on service to the mobile terminal. Self-contained localization services relying on the mobile network elements have offered only rough position estimates. Moreover, satellite-based technologies suffer a severe degradation of their localization performance in indoors and urban areas. Therefore, only in subsequent cellular standard releases, more accurate cellular-based location methods have been considered to accommodate more challenging localization services. This survey provides an overview of the evolution of the various localization methods that were standardized from the first to the fourth generation of cellular mobile radio, and looks over what can be expected with the new radio and network aspects for the upcoming generation of 5G.

More On Commercial Signal Codes

The research on indoor localization has received great interest in recent years. This has been fuelled by the ubiquitous distribution of electronic devices equipped with a radio frequency interface. Analyzing the signal fluctuation on the RF-interface can, for instance, solve the still open issue of ubiquitous reliable indoor localization and tracking. Device bound and device free approaches with remarkable accuracy have been reported recently.

  • Indoor localization based on SIngle Of Fingerprint is rather susceptible to the changing environment, multipath, and non-line-of-sight propagation.
  • Recently, we first proposed a GrOup Of Fingerprints to improve the localization accuracy and reduce the burden of building fingerprints.

Electrical Time Signals

Although the interference between APs is unavoidable due to the overlapped channel, traditional methods treat APs individually by assuming independence among them. This paper proposes a novel group discriminant -based AP selection approach for improving location fingerprinting, in which the dependence between APs is considered. The proposed GD approach focuses on measuring the positioning capabilities of each group of APs instead of ranking APs based on their individual importance. It utilizes the risk function from support vector machines to estimate the GD value by maximizing the margin between reference locations.

Audible And Visible Time Signals

Time stations operating in the longwave radio band have highly predictable radio propagation characteristics, which gives low uncertainty in the received time signals. Stations operating in the shortwave band can cover wider areas with relatively low-power transmitters, but the varying distance that the signal travels increases the uncertainty of the time signal on a scale of milliseconds. In many Midwestern US cities where tornadoes are a common hazard, the emergency sirens are tested regularly at a specified time ; while not primarily intended to mark the time, local people often check their watches when they hear this signal. In many non-seafaring communities, loud factory whistles served as public time signals before radio made them obsolete.

In this paper, we revisit the RSS fingerprint-based localization scheme and reveal crucial observations that act as the root causes of localization errors, yet are surprisingly overlooked or not adequately addressed in previous works. Specifically, what are commercial signals we recognize APs’ diverse discrimination for fingerprinting a specific location, observe the RSS inconsistency caused by signal fluctuations and human body blockages, and uncover the transitional fingerprint problem on commodity smartphones.

The analysis results indicated that the combined GPS/GLONASS positioning did not show significantly improved performance compared to the GPS-only positioning. This could be due to the inter-system hardware bias for GPS/GLONASS receivers, the selection of transformation parameters between reference coordinate systems, the selection of a confidence level for error analysis, or the number of visible satellites at a specific time.

What Might Ontario Legislation Look Like?

While centimeter-level positioning accuracy has been demonstrated for Wi-Fi systems, only meterlevel accuracy was reported for Long-term Evolution systems. We demonstrate for the first time that the centimeter-level positioning accuracy is achievable for LTE systems through extensive experiments.


Our scheme further boosts the localization efficiency by using principal component analysis to filter the most relevant feature vectors. Furthermore, with Bayesian filtering, we continuously track the trajectory of a moving subject.